Critical Analysis of Google with Big Data, Search Engine and Internet


Google Inc. is a well-known internet operating entity that was founded by two partners, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, while studying at Stanford University. The duo named Google after the mathematical term “googol,” which refers to the value that a one represents followed by a hundred zeros. In essence, Google has since its formation grown and developed to become the leading Internet search engine. Currently, since 2015, Google has been operating as an affiliate under Alphabet Company. The company’s main service is providing consumers targeted search results from a selection of more than 8 billion web pages. Subsequent to launching the company in the year 1998, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, worked hard to realise the concept they had initially created as a school project, not aware that they project would turn into a great idea. Presently, Google site offers search results in several languages, attracting an estimated audience of 380 million users across the globe.

Since its launch, the company has continued to show positive performance with its profits humming along every year and the number of employees also surging with its increased yearly growth and development. In 2017 fiscal year, Google’s parent company Alphabet Enterprise reported that it had registered total revenues of $110.8 billion, which was an increase from 2016’s $90 billion (Statista, 2017). By the year 2010, Google Inc. had developed a global reputation in internet search popularity with many offices across different countries. Since then, the company has also facilitated users’ search information on the internet. In this regard, Google Inc. provides an adaptable and vibrant multimedia internetworked system of communication to users in different formats and makes sure that users can access such services in any place. Through this aspect, the company ensures that it offers the users the much needed telecommunication network services accessible from computers, phones, or website platforms at any time. In addition, consumers of Google’s services can gain experience on operation of various apps that instil latest technologies. As such, the company has also tried to effect changes that help users to solve problems that relate to technologies as well as present opportunities for users to explore various benefits of the services rendered to them. On this background, this research paper will underline some of the ways through which Google Inc. contributes to the part of the internet transformation thus has changed aspects of consumers’ lives, work, as well as other aspects such as people’s comprehension of the internet as well as their social, political as well as economic worlds.

Historical Ecology of Google Inc

Google Inc. is a global company in the product and service industry with the primary platform on the internet that was founded by two college friends, Sergey Brin and Larry Page in 1998. From when the company was founded, it has increasingly grown to handling over 70% of all global searches today. The company’s growth is attributable to the incessant user search of information online along with the ever-advancing technology. In the first years, Google Inc. operated as an online search enterprise. Today, the company is an affiliate of Alphabet Enterprise and offers over 50% of internet services and products such as e-mails, mobile phones as well as software among others (Google Inc., 2015). At the same time, a report by Statista (2017) for number of employees of Alphabet Company between 2007 and 2017 reveal that Google Inc had about 88,110 full-time employees by 2017.


Figure 1: Number of full-time Alphabet employees from 2007 to 2017


Since Google established its first shop in Menlo Park California, the company has advanced in terms of number of consumers as well as services provided. The initial massive funding that Google put into the company was $ 25 million which led to a huge increase to more than 500, 000 search queries every day with a major upsurge witnesses in 2000 when the company became a search engine (Hormby, 2013). At the same time, Google’s number of search services tremendously increased to over 200 million every day by 2004, marking a major change in search engine competition between Google Inc., Yahoo and AOL (Hormby, 2013). With this massive growth in search queries, Google Inc. established more centred across the world. The company also built more interlinks to store the huge data in various machines, handle the database programs of the company, and generate higher levels of data which were all geared towards appealing to more users to gain trust in the company.

Companies must always take into account the business models they operate under to ensure effective operation (Afuah, 2002). The business model of Google Inc is reliant on its advertising through search engine as well as AdSense program that is responsible for placing ads on several websites. As such, the company’s main business model can be said to be based on its advertising. The commercial search engine of Google Inc. is ranked first in the Alexa index as the leader in search engine usage worldwide. With this, Google has today become synonymous with web search. The other vital model that Google incorporates is innovation in it products and services.


Figure 2: Google Inc. Business Model

It is evident that Google Inc. uses a hidden revenue type of business model which is a pattern for generating revenues while keeping users out of the equation (Cuofano, 2018). Therefore, users do not pay for the services or products that are offered. Users of Google Inc. do not pay for the search engine for instance. Instead, the company’s revenue streams are generated from advertising money that other businesses spend when they bid on keywords.

Figure 3: Google Inc. Online Ecology

How Google has Transformed Economic, Political, Social and/or Cultural Relations

With the advancing concept of globalisation, it has become easier and mostly potential to achieve international integration as a way of product exchange, involving world views, products, services, thoughts as well as other issues of culture that affect a worldwide sphere. Quite a number of factors contribute to the growth of globalisation, and have had an effect on the way information is shared and organised for various people around the world to access and use such information. In view of how Google Inc. has contributed to this transformation, this research delineates the economic, political and social aspects that have been transformed as a result of the growth of internet search engines, with particular concentration on Google, to understand these relations on a global scale. In essence, Google Inc., through the world wide search engine, has created a positive political, economic, social as well as technological progress (). It has also changed situations wherein power of state can now be determined through the power of a firm. To some, Google Inc. has created a more liberal way to exchange services or thoughts with the rest of the world by making available information about almost everything which users would be interested to know from the internet. This convergence of information and making it accessible to people also creates a somewhat space for identity.

Meanwhile, Manyika and Roxburgh (2011) consider that a large number of firms along with national economies have depended and reaped massive benefits from Google’s technological revolution, wherein consumers and small enterprises also obtain benefit from the internet’s influence through Google’s search engine services. As the internet continues to advance and change the way in which people obtain information online, it has become easier for people to socialise, create and share information as well as organise the ways in which ideas flow from the source to the receiver. As well, through Google services, these interactions have been enabled globally. Google advertising services have become the main online services that most businesses opt for when seeking to advertise products or services online. Through adSense and AdWord, businesses can reach many potential customers and consequently extend their brand worldwide through information shared through Google. Yet there are still many innovations that have facilitated businesses to unleash the potential of the internet to grow and develop.

As a result of this development created through Google, many businesses have been able to expand their operations online and globally. As well, it has increased the necessity to carry out international trade wherein businesses can access information about location, cultures as well as competition in other markets before they venture in these markets (Mehlika, 2013).  International investment, as an effect of international trade, has also been facilitated since businesses can access important information regarding investing overseas through the Google search engine. At the same time, businesses can now carry out international finance activities which involve foreign exchange markets as it is possible for businesses and even respective or individual investors to find information regarding international finance through the Google search engine. In this consideration, it is clear that Google’s products and services have been utilised in this transformative ways wherein they have led to modification of business models online to suit the global competition.

In terms of the social aspect, the rise of Google as a leading search engine worldwide has enabled people from different cultures to search and find information regarding different cultures of the world. At the same time, since people can gain access to such information, there has been an increasing concept of social globalisation wherein people interact socially and even copy ideas and lifestyles of foreign cultures. Today, it is even possible to search and find information about a given people’s lifestyle through Google’s search engine, from which one can learn to adopt such foreign cultures. The increasing aspects of social interactions created online, which Google facilitates, have also led to formation of new social structures across the globe. Sharing ideas online have made it possible for social change to be achieved. This way, it is obvious that Google’s services have altered the way in which people relate socially and extended the scope of social relationships globally.

In the political realm, it is evident that the development of Google Inc. has been characterised by political upheavals, especially due to regulatory frameworks that seem to affect the company’s growth along with other aspects that have facilitated its growth and development of the decades (Castells, 2014). Due to government policies, businesses must ensure that they recognise and embrace opportunities created for their progress while eliminating risks.  Google’s evolution of the years has shown great improvement in terms of providing search engine ecosystem which does not infringe users’ privacy (Vissers & Stolle, 2014). Google Inc. has also boosted its infrastructure to enable access and competitive services and products which have benefited both users and other businesses to prosper. In this case, Google Inc. is considered to have had an enormous impact in the transformation of people’s ideas and allowing people to also relate politically. Meanwhile, regulatory debates, especially concerning


In conclusion, Google Inc. can be said to have been an influential force and form of the internet transformation over the years since its launch in 1998. The company introduced a completely online business model in which businesses can advertise their products and services while users freely search the internet and get access to millions of search results depending on keywords. By using a hidden business model where users or consumers do not pay to use their services, Google Inc. became a new business for users to also connect and interact on a global scale while also improving business operations and relations worldwide. It is clear that Google Inc. took advantage of advantage of the internet’s internetworked communities to establish global connections in new markets of businesses, publishers and users. It is still possible to note that Google Inc. operates in an almost oligopoly industry with only few competitors such as Bing and Yahoo. This enables Google to retain a huge chunk of users although this can also pose a challenge when the company faces low differentiation within its search engine. Still, such opportunities make it possible for Google to remain innovative in bringing along new ways to transform the way users experience services and products which change users’ ways of life, work and play.


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Manyika, J., & Roxburgh, C. (2011). The great transformer: The impact of the Internet on economic growth and prosperity. McKinsey Global Institute1.

Mehlika, F. (2013). Globalization and its Economic Social, Political and Cultural Impact. New Delhi: Tata Institute of Social Sciences.

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Vissers, S., & Stolle, D. (2014). The Internet and new modes of political participation: online versus offline participation. Information, Communication & Society17(8), 937-955.

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